This network architecture is less preferred because the use of the Internet can cause delays and uncertain packet delivery. Message flows in accordance with a further embodiment of the present invention are shown in Figs. In Fig. The second set of messages 2 relates specifically to the present invention. The RAT changeover procedure starts with a service update request from the mobile terminal This request is treated in the same way as the service request in the previous embodiment.
Messages sent by the mobile terminal in embodiments of the present invention, e. The remaining steps are as previously described. Hence, also in this embodiment, the mobile terminal 10 is the initiator of the process which results in a system handover. The IWU responds with an acknowledgement that the bearer on the other network is complete. The RNC then sends the RAT handover command to the mobile terminal which begins the log-on procedure to the relevant network.
In this procedure some packets may be lost, particularly if the mobile terminal takes a long time to log-on to the new network. To prevent this, packets which cannot be delivered may be stored at the RNC in a buffer and then transmitted to the new network via the SGSN and the relevant IWU once the communication with the mobile terminal via the new network is complete.
Alternatively or additionally, the packets may be stored in a buffer in the relevant IWU awaiting the completion of the log-on procedure of the mobile terminal. The second set of messages 4 relates specifically to the present invention. The RAT change procedure starts with a service update request from the mobile terminal This request is treated in the same way as the service request in the previous embodiment, e. This in turn confirms the allocation of a new bearer to the SGSN.
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At the same time all received packets are buffered at the RNC and forwarded to the IWU 42 when the mobile terminal has logged on. Iu interface. In the above description the question of IP addresses and mobility has not been discussed. It is considered that the present invention is not limited by the particular method used to provide mobility in an IP network, nor is it dependent upon it. Various solutions have been proposed and standardization has not been achieved, see, for example, the article "IP Services over BlueTooth: leading the way to new mobility", by Albrecht et al.
It is anticipated that a temporary identifier will be required to identify the mobile terminal and this temporary identifier will need to be associated with an IP address and even with a local address, e. It is anticipated that any suitable method of allocating local and dynamic IP addresses may be adapted to the present invention. The reverse handover procedure from one of the local networks 30 to 60 to the UMTS network 20 may also be performed. If the local IWU 32, 42, 46 supports the necessary messaging the inverse procedure can be initiated from the local network IWU 32, 42, Alternatively, the mobile terminal 10 can make a forward handover directly to the UMTS network One node of the various networks is common, in this case the SGSN In the forward handover the mobile terminal 10 provides all information as to the present communication to allow the core network 70 to identify the call and arrange handover.
The RAT changeover with respect to networks 50 and 60 will now be described. In case of network 50, the network is served by the SGSN However, the service request procedure, allocation of a RAB and scanning of the available radio resources by the mobile terminal 10 remains the same.
In the case of the unidirectional network 60, no complete handover of the system as such is carried out. Instead, there is a split between the uplink and downlink channels the uplink going via the UMTS FDD network and the downlink going via the unidirectional network. To meet a service request, e. Uplink traffic continues via the UMTS system, e. While the invention has been shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes or modifications in form and detail may be made without departing from the scope and spirit of this invention.
A method of operating at least a first and a second mobile telecommunications network connected through at least one common node, a mobile terminal being in radio communication with the first mobile telecommunications network, the method comprising the steps of: the mobile terminal scanning a frequency spectrum and identifying at least a potential radio access network;.
The method according to claim 1, wherein the second network is uncoordinated with the first network. The method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the radio access technology of the first network is different from the radio access technology of the second network. The method according to any of the previous claims, wherein the first network comprises a first access network and a core network and the common node is in the core network. The method according to any previous claim, further comprising the step of the first network transmitting a message to the mobile terminal, the message including system parameters of the second network.
The method according to claim 5, wherein the message is broadcast to the mobile. The method according to claim 5, wherein the message is transmitted depending upon the location of the mobile terminal. The method according to any previous claim, wherein the redirection is via a wireline. The method according to any of the previous claims, wherein the redirection is via a wide area multimedia IP telecommunications network.
The method according to any previous claim, wherein the first network is a cellular network. A system having at least a first and a second mobile telecommunications network connected through at least one common node, a mobile terminal being in radio communication with the first mobile telecommunications network, comprising: means in the mobile terminal for scanning a frequency spectrum and identifying potential radio network sources;.
The system according to claim 10, wherein the second network is uncoordinated with the first network.
The system according to claim 11 or 12, wherein the radio access technology of the first network is different from the radio access technology of the second network. The system according to any of the claims 11 to 13, wherein the first network comprises a first access network and a core network and the common node is in the core network.
The system according to any of claims 11 to 14 wherein the first network is a cellular network. A network element for use with at least a first and a second mobile telecommunications network, comprising: means for receiving from a mobile terminal in radio communication with the first mobile telecommunications network a report of the results of a scan of a frequency spectrum and identification of potential radio network sources,.
A multi-mode mobile terminal for communications with a plurality of mobile telecommunications networks, comprising: means to scan a frequency spectrum and to identify potential radio network sources,. EP EPB1 en System and method for communication redirection between mobile telecommunication networks with different radio access technologies.
System and method of transfer of communication between mobile telecommunication networks with different radio access technologies. DE DET2 en System and method for forwarding communications between mobile telecommunication networks with different radio access technologies. System and method for message redirection between mobile telecommunication networks with different radio access technologies. USB2 en. EPB1 en. ATT en. DET2 en. WOA1 en. Method for securing a link between a data terminal and a local area network, and the corresponding data terminal to implement such a method. Data organizing method for organizing a subscriber's transmission of data via a mobile telephone uses networks linked to a common device.
A process for producing a connection between a mobile station and a communication network. Method for data transmission in a wireless local and wide telecommunication system and the related network. Multi-mode mobile terminals radio access managing process for cellular telecommunication network, involves analyzing queries to determine type and number of tasks to execute as well as constraints imposed by multi-mode context. Mobile telephone service request transfer controlling method, involves activating transfer of service request towards global system for mobile communication network as function of specific coded value affecting transfer parameter.
Inter-system handoff between wireless communication networks of different radio access technologies. System and method for initiating auxiliary communication interfaces via a primary communication interface.
Communication system, has determination device determining user priority value of subscriber device, where value specifies network priority of user in dependence on mobile radio communication network identity of user. Optimum operating method for closely coupled radio network with different network technologies, with splitting data stream to mobile radio terminal directly in radio access network. System, devices and methods using an indication of complementary access availability.
System for application server autonomous access across different types of access technology networks. System and method for assisting a mobile terminal in reselecting or transferring cells between different technologies. WOA2 en. Apparatus, method and computer program product providing simultaneous radio resource and service requests. CNC en. Method and system for reporting a short message capability via an IP multimedia subsystem. A method for transmitting data in a local and a supra local radio communication system and related network.kgroupeg.net/docs/adams/hoxy-es-freut-mich.php
CNB en. Power savings in a mobile communications device through dynamic control of processed bandwidth. Method and system for facilitating inter-system handover for wireless communication. Telecommunication services to multiple networks comprising a wireless communication system.
Method and system for implementing a signalling connection in a distributed radio access network. Method for exchanging higher layer system information on a wireless system and automatic system selection of a wireless lan. Quality of service mapping between various types of wireless communication systems. Radio resource control method in a mobile communication system and mobilkommunikaitonssystem. Method for supporting services in multimedia broadcast and multicast by carrying connection through signaling in Lu interface. Multi access system of packet call in wireless communication terminal and method thereof.
Method and apparatus for determining a base station's transmission power budget. Method and apparatus for reporting of information a wireless communication system. Methods and apparatus for determining, communicating and using information which can be used for interference control. Method of transmitting pilot tones in a multi-sector cell, including null pilot tones, for generating channel quality indicators. Methods and apparatus for determining, communicating and using information including loading factors which can be used for interference control purposes.
Direct-conversion receiver system and method with quadrature balancing and DC offset removal. Apparatus and method of uplink data during cell update in universal mobile telecommunications system user equipment. Short message service request employment by application server component to obtain one or more mobile device short message service reports. Method and apparatus for selectively enabling reception of downlink signaling channels. Apparatus and method for making measurements in mobile telecommunications system user equipment. Wireless communication methods and components for facilitating multiple network type compatibility.
KRB1 en. Methods and apparatus for determining, communicating and using information which can be used for interference control purposes. Method and system for wireless networking using coordinated dynamic spectrum access. System and method to facilitate inter-frequency handoff of mobile terminals in a wireless communication network. Method for configuring a radio terminal through a radio communication network, related network and computer program product therefor. JPB2 en. Wireless communication method and system for implementing media independent handover between technologically diversified access networks.
FIB en. Communication system, method of controlling a communication system, network access apparatus and method for controlling a network access device. QoS channels for multimedia services on a general purpose operating system platform using data cards.
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USB1 en. Data e. Handover method between core network entities in packet-switched based network and therefor apparatus. IP network information database in mobile devices for use with media independent information server for enhanced network. Method for processing control information in a wireless mobile communication system. Method of transmitting a measurement report in a wireless mobile communications system.
GBB en. Methods and apparatus for communicating information utilizing a plurality of dictionaries. USA1 en. Methods and apparatus relating to generating and transmitting initial and additional control information report sets in a wireless system. Method for reducing consumption of an electric current in multi-mode terminal and the terminal thefefor.
A method for establishing a communication session and the communication network. Quality of service provisioning through adaptable and network regulated channel access parameters. A method for transferring information during handover in a communication system. Method and apparatus for locating a wireless local area network associated with a wireless wide area network.
Executing handover method in a mobile radio communication system and the system. An apparatus and method for transferring pdp context information for a terminal in the case of intersystem handover. Mobile communication system, a handover control method, a radio base station, the mobile station and program. Fallback method and apparatus of the circuit-switched domain, from a packet switched domain. EPA1 en. Method and apparatus for efficient signaling and usage of resources for wireless communications supporting circuit switched and packet switched sessions.
ESB1 en. Methods, apparatus, and systems for facilitating audio communications between disparate devices. Mobile traffic categorization and policy for network use optimization while preserving user experience. Selective data compression by a distributed traffic management system to reduce mobile data traffic and signaling traffic.
Distributed management of keep-alive message signaling for mobile network resource conservation and optimization. Cache defeat detection and caching of content addressed by identifiers intended to defeat cache. Distributed caching in a wireless network of content delivered for a mobile application over a long-held request. Application and network-based long poll request detection and cacheability assessment therefor.
Aligning data transfer to optimize connections established for transmission over a wireless network. GBA en. System and method for reduction of mobile network traffic used for domain name system DNS queries. Detecting and preserving state for satisfying application requests in a distributed proxy and cache system. System and method for making requests on behalf of a mobile device based on atomic processes for mobile network traffic relief. Automatic generation and distribution of policy information regarding malicious mobile traffic in a wireless network.
Coordinated forward link blanking and power boosting for flexible bandwidth systems. Assistance information for flexible bandwidth carrier mobility methods, systems, and devices. EPA4 en. A system of redundantly clustered machines to provide failover mechanisms for mobile traffic management and network resource conservation. Cellular or WiFi mobile traffic optimization based on public or private network destination. Radio-awareness of mobile device for sending server-side control signals using a wireless network optimized transport protocol.
Hierarchies and categories for management and deployment of policies for distributed wireless traffic optimization. Operation modes for mobile traffic optimization and concurrent management of optimized and non-optimized traffic. System and method for generating a report to a network operator by distributing aggregation of data. Detection and management of user interactions with foreground applications on a mobile device in distributed caching. User as an end point for profiling and optimizing the delivery of content and data in a wireless network. Method and system for management of a virtual network connection without heartbeat messages.
Enhanced customer service for mobile carriers using real-time and historical mobile application and traffic or optimization data associated with mobile devices in a mobile network. A methdo and apparatus for control the re-direction between heterogeneous system. Dynamic bandwidth adjustment for browsing or streaming activity in a wireless network based on prediction of user behavior when interacting with mobile applications. Optimized and selective management of policy deployment to mobile clients in a congested network to prevent further aggravation of network congestion.
Systems and methods for application management of mobile device radio state promotion and demotion. Signaling optimization in a wireless network for traffic utilizing proprietary and non-proprietary protocols. Mobile device equipped with mobile network congestion recognition to make intelligent decisions regarding connecting to an operator network. Proxy server associated with a mobile carrier for enhancing mobile traffic management in a mobile network.
Communication system with mobile assisted signal strength measurements for a plurality of networks and methods for operating the same. Handoff procedure that minimizes disturbances to dtmf signalling in a cellular radio system. Method and apparatus for handoff between different cellular communications systems. Method and apparatus for effecting handoff between different cellular communications systems.
System and method for providing handover of a mobile ip terminal in a wireless network. Efficient network messaging protocol for performing hard handoffs in a wireless network. Methods and apparatus for performing handoffs in a multi-carrier wireless communications system. Method of making secure a link between a data terminal and a data processing local area network, and a data terminal for implementing the method.
Method for making secure a link between a data terminal and a local computer network, and data terminal therefor. Method for protecting a connection between a data terminal and a local computer network, and data terminal for carrying out this method. Method for establishing a connection between a mobile station and a communication network. Method for the transmission of data in a local and a supralocal radio communication system and corresponding network.
Method for controlling the transfer of a mobile telephone service request between a umts network and a gsm network and corresponding control device. Communication system, method of controlling a communication system control device and method for providing a wireless service. A method for optimal operation of a close-coupled radio network with various network technologies and apparatus for a network element. Supplier to global market. Interactive VSAT product line. Field proven DVB-S product line. Proprietary, IP-based. High-speed IP networking over satellites.
Bit Central. Distributor and integrator for private networks. Experienced integrator. Leading telecom equipment supplier, also active in satellite communications. Effective and efficient satellite communications depends on the type of modulation and multiple access used by transmitting user terminals and earth stations. The staunch support by suppliers of their particular approach often produces interesting and confusing debate within the technical community.
Mirroring the dialog of the digital mobile cellular standards, satellite multiple access techniques run the gamut of time division, frequency division and code division approaches. Figure 3 shows how these techniques occupy the two key dimensions of satellite capacity: frequency spectrum and time. The suppliers of two-way products in Table 2 each have chosen a scheme for reasons of experience and capability.
Evaluation of these systems is ongoing, and each can demonstrate satisfactory operation in a live network. Any of the three can be made to work; however, it is likely that one or two may be superior for a specific defined application. Beyond the theory, it is the product design and protocol operation that matter as to how well the multiple access system delivers information in an effective and manageable way. Figure 3. Illustration of the time and frequency utilization of basic multiple access techniques, indicating how four earth stations would share the overall channel bandwidth.
The primary modulation method in use over satellites is phase shift keying PSK. Adopted by satellite engineers in the s, PSK has found its way into all wireless systems as it is nearly optimum with regard to the use of bandwidth and power. Variants like minimum shift keying MSK and Gaussian MSK GMSK that are applied in different situations, and some have gained in popularity due to increased importance of using low-power transmitters on the ground. A comparison of typical implementations of these FEC techniques is provided in Figure 4.
Plotted on the X axis is the ratio in dB of the ratio of energy per bit to the noise density; the Y axis indicates the estimated probability of bit error, which approximates the bit error rate BER delivered at the receiver. It is clear from these data that TPC is to be favored on performance alone; however, its computational complexity limits data rate to about 10 Mbps, appropriate for inbound service. Modems to support concatenated coding, particularly within the DVB standard, are available up to about Mbps, making this system desirable for high speed outbound transmission from the hub and for the broadcast of both digital video and Internet content.
Figure 4. Performance characteristics of current forward error correction techniques, provided for comparison purposes only. A global comparison of technology and its implementation by developers and manufacturers is probably impractical. However, if the basic requirements for the network are known, it is possible to narrow the possibilities and make choices of equipment and operating parameters.
Most generalized comparisons resort to the basic linear equations for the wireless line-of-sight path, e. From the basic geometry of the geostationary orbit, the line-of-site path length R 0 can be estimated from:. For pure thermal noise as produced within the receiving earth station,. This simple calculation is not sufficient to account for a variety of other noise sources and impairments that significantly affect the satellite channel. These include:. Satellite communications engineers most often use the link budget to identify and combine the various gains, losses and margins in the uplink and downlink path.
The practice of link budget formulation involves both science and art. Individuals who routinely compile them have their own unique formats, typically embodied in personalized Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. There are a myriad of calculations and assumptions for individual entries, and engineers typically include margins anywhere in the range of 0.
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The following is an example of the type of analysis that would be performed in studying the properties of a particular network, considering the candidate satellite and techniques for multiple access, modulation and forward error correction. This is for illustrative purposes and not to derive conclusions applicable to a different network design. The cities where chosen to measure the impact of different local climate situations and geometry to the satellite, where Suva is the most favorable in terms of elevation angle and rainfall; Palembang is the least favorable, having the lowest angle and being situated in a region of intense tropical rainfall, and Manila being about in the middle in terms of these issues.
While PAS 2 provides a fixed coverage to these locations, we have chosen to make the downlink effective isotropic radiated power EIRP an independent variable in the range of 25 to 40 dBW.
The bit error probability at the receiver, including all impacts on the uplink and downlink, is held constant at 10 -8 at The results of the analysis in terms of receive antenna diameter are shown in Figures 5 a, b and c, for Suva, Manila and Palembang, respectively. Figure 5. The curves reveal some interesting aspects of this evaluation:. The assumed antenna sizes of 2. Table 3 presents the results of this evaluation, assuming the actual satellite uplink characteristics for these three locations in Asia Pacific.
For an information transfer rate of kbps for the inbound link, we see significant improvement from the application of TPC as compared to convolutional FEC at the time of this writing, concatenated convolutional with R-S was not available on the market for the inbound channel. We see that this power is held to a reasonable value under 4 watts for both Palembang and Manila, resulting from the satellite providing good uplink performance.
On the other hand, the Suva location happens to be situated in an unfavorable part of the PAS 2 uplink pattern for the Vertical uplink beam, which causes the transmitter requirement to balloon to tens of watts.
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Table 3. Excel spreadsheet containing parameters for VSAT inbound link evaluation. Data rate. Transponder capacity. Suva, Fiji. Manila, Phil. Palembang, Indon. Elevation angel. Dish size. SSPA power. A study of this type can be quite involved as there are potentially many links, different modulation and FEC methods, and a variety of satellite coverage options to consider. The difficulty one faces in this type of effort is that there are almost always more equations than knowns; therefore, a unique solution cannot be obtained.
Many important factors, such as ASI and ISI, can only be estimated and then budgeted in the link budget in terms of additional margin. It is always a good practice to test the proposed solution using a comparable satellite link and equipment of the proposed design. Also, satellite performance should be based on high-quality measurements taken from calibrated earth stations at critical points of the coverage. The best source of this type of data is the appropriate manufacturer or operator; however, the network developer may need to perform some of this work themselves.
We have identified and reviewed many topics that are central to the development of cutting-edge satellite broadband networks. New configurations and applications using interactive satellite networks are being devised to address a hungry market for communications and information applications; some will succeed and, unfortunately, some will fail.
One can only increase the probably of success by considering a sufficiently wide range of technologies and their providers. However, gaining a firm base in the technical performance of the different options is a key to developing a satellite network that satisfies users. Kadish, Jules E. Elbert, Bruce R. The tabs above provide access to specific pages that address the services, publications, training courses, conferences and organizations supported by ATS. Application Technology Strategy, LLC, ATS , is the satellite consulting firm founded by Bruce Elbert, leading satellite expert and consultant, technologist, educator and author of standard industry books.
We emphasize the how of developing satellite systems. Client Access. Search Search this site:. From the basic geometry of the geostationary orbit, the line-of-site path length R 0 can be estimated from: where j is the latitude and d is the longitude of the earth station relative to that of the satellite. References Kadish, Jules E. User application. One way over satellite; terrestrial return. Remote access to corporate business applications. Content distribution. Video teleconferencing. Leased line. One —way. Netmodem II.