Colloids in Cosmetics and Personal Care, Volume 4

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The various reasons for this nanotoxicity are summarized below:- Smaller size of nanoparticles The main characteristic of nanoparticles is their small size. Shape of nanoparticles Nanoparticles are produced in a variety of shapes like spheres, tubes, sheets etc. Surface area of nanoparticles As the size of the particle decreases, their surface area increases leading to an increase in their reactivity. Penetration of nanoparticles via skin Scientific studies have shown that nanoparticles can penetrate skin, especially if skin is flexed.

Cellular toxicity of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles In a study published by Minghong Wu and co-workers at Shanghai University, they have discovered that zinc oxide ZnO nanoparticles used in sunscreens can damage or kill the stem cells in the brains of mice. Occupational risks of nanoparticles Workers may be accidentally exposed to nanomaterials during the production of nanomaterials or products containing them, as well as during use, disposal or recycling of these products. Route and extent of exposure[ 44 — 46 ] health risks that nanoparticles pose to the humans also depend on the route and extent of exposure to such materials.

Inhalation It is the most common route of exposure of airborne nanoparticles according to the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety. Ingestion Ingestion of nanomaterials may occur from unintentional hand-to-mouth transfer of nanomaterials or from the intentional ingestion of nanomaterials.

Through skin Studies have shown that certain nanomaterials have penetrated layers of pig skin within 24 hours of exposure. Environmental risks of nanoparticles The environment is also at risk due to the exposure of nanomaterials through release into the water, air, and soil, during the manufacture, use, or disposal of these materials. Toxicity produced by carbon fullerenes buckyballs Various studies have shown that carbon fullerenes, which are currently being used in moisturizers and some face creams, have the potential to cause brain damage in fishes[ 55 , 56 ] kill water fleas and have bactericidal properties.

Characterization methods for safety assessment of nanoparticles in cosmetics The opinions of the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks SCENIHR deals with the risk assessment methodologies available for evaluating the possible adverse health and environmental effects of nanotechnology products[ 59 ] and also on the investigation of nanomaterials.

Mathematical modeling These predictive models range from simple, empirical algorithms to complex mathematical equations which sometimes require knowledge and estimation of experimentally inaccessible parameters. Microscopic techniques More useful information from the in vitro studies can be obtained by microscopic examination of the skin posttreatment. In vitro methods Though there are a number of alternative methods and technologies for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the biological activity of compounds, only validated methods are permitted for cosmetic products.

Figure 1. Figure 2. Safety requisites for a blooming beauty Cosmetic manufacturers using nanotechnology confront an uncertain future from both consumer response and a regulatory standpoint. Prior to placing the cosmetic product on the market, the responsible person should submit the following information to the Commission: The presence of substances in the form of nanomaterials Their identification including the chemical name IUPAC and other descriptors The reasonably foreseeable exposure conditions In case the Commission has concerns regarding the safety of the nanomaterial, the Commission shall, without delay, request the SCCS to give its opinion on the safety of these nanomaterials for the relevant categories of cosmetic products and the reasonably foreseeable exposure conditions.

Particular consideration shall be given to any possible impacts on the toxicological profile due to Particle sizes, including nanomaterials; Impurities of the substances and raw material used; and Interaction of substances.

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In a nutshell The use of engineered nanomaterials has hiked in today's world. References 1. Law Nano-cosmetics: Beyond skin deep. Nano Science Institute. Scientific Committee Rules on the Safety of Nanocosmetics. Schueller R, Romanowski P. Pierfrancesco M.

Use and potential of nanotechnology in cosmetic dermatology. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. Proultraflexible lipid vesicles for effective transdermal delivery of norgesterol. USA: Proceedings of 25th conference of C. S; Cevc G. Transfersomes, liposomes and other lipid suspensions on the skin: Permeation enhancement, vesicle penetration, and transdermal drug delivery.

Percutaneous penetration enhancers: An overview. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. Non-ionic surfactant based vesicles niosomes in drug delivery. Int J Pharm. Formulation and in vitro assessment of minoxidil niosomes for enhanced skin delivery.

Innovative Sensory Products 1: Crackling Creams

Ethosomes-novel vesicular carriers for enhanced delivery: Characterization and skin penetration properties. J Control Release. Nanoemulsions: A new vehicle for skincare products. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. In vivo hair growth promotion effects of cosmetic preparations containing hinokitiol-loaded poly epsilon-caprolacton nanocapsules.

J Microencapsul. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Song C, Liu S. A new healthy sunscreen system for human: Solid lipid nanoparticles as carrier for 3,4,5- trimethoxybenzoylchitin and the improvement by adding vitamin E. Int J Biol Macromol. Petersen R. Nanocrystals for use in topical cosmetic formulations and method of production thereof.

Abbott GmbH and Co. Nanotechnology in cosmetics analysed. Cosmetic or dermatological topical compositions comprising dendritic polyesters. Michael F. In: Rosen M, editor. Personal Care Delivery Systems and Formulations. Berkshire, UK: Noyes Publishing; Formation of cubosomes as vehicles of biologically active substances. Study and description of hydrogels and organogels as vehicles for cosmetic active ingredients. J Cosmet Sci. Medicinal applications of fullerenes. Int J Nanomedicine.

Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environ Health Perspect. Royal Society.

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Cellular toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Nano Lett. Free radical activity associated with the surface of particles: A unifying factor in determining biological activity? Toxicol Lett. Inhalation Exposure study of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with a primary particle size of 2 to 5 nm. Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study.

Nat Nanotechnol. Pritchard DK. Health and safety laboratory, literature review — explosion hazards associated with nanopowders. Penetration of intact skin by quantum dots with diverse physicochemical properties. Toxicol Sci. Nanoparticles and microparticles for skin drug delivery.

Effects of mechanical flexion on the penetration of fullerene amino acid derivatized peptide nanoparticles through skin. Minghong W.

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Phosphorylation of p65 Is required for zinc oxide nanoparticle—induced interleukin 8 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. A scoping study to identify hazard data needs for addressing the risks presented by nanoparticles and nanotubes. Research Report. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article.

Handbook of Colloid and Interface Science - Volume 3 Industrial Applications I

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Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

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This volume describes the role of colloids in cosmetics and personal care, highlighting the importance of fundamental research in practical applications. Of interest to electrochemists, physical and surface chemists, materials scientists, and physicists. Skin Care. Cosmetic delivery systems. Bibliographic information. Publication date Series Colloids and interface science series ; v. Browse related items Start at call number: QD C